Selasa, 06 Agustus 2013


Tengger etnic  is a tribe living around Mount Bromo, East Java, which occupies most of Pasuruan regency, Lumajang, Probolinggo and Malang.
According to a myth or legend that grew in the Tengger community, ancestry Roro  Anteng who was the daughter of King Brawijaya with Joko Seger son of a Brahmana. Tengger name taken from the suffix name of the second pair of the couple that  is, "Teng" from Roro Anteng and "Ger" from Joko Seger. Legend of Roro Anteng  and Joko Seger that God promised to give their youngest son, Raden Kusuma is an early start to the occurrence of ritual in Tengger Kasodo.
According to some historians, is a native of the Tengger Javanese who at the time was living at the time of Majapahit kingdom. When the inclusion of Islam in Indonesia (Java) when it happened persinggungan between Islamic governments in Java, one of which is the Majapahit who feel desperate with the advent of Islamic influence, then fled to Bali and rural territory around Mount Bromo and Semeru . Those who remain in the vicinity of Mount Bromo's interior and founded the village whose name is taken from the suffix name of their leader / ancestor Roro anteng  and Joko Seger.
 Area of ​​Tengger  approximately 40km north and south; 20-30 miles and east to west, in the height of 1000m - 3676 m. Tengger District are located in parts of four counties, namely: Probolinggo, Pasuruan, Malang and Lumajang. Type the surface of mountainous land with steep cliffs. Tengger Caldera is the largest sand sea, situated at an altitude of 2300 m, with a length of 5-10 km. Mount Bromo's crater, with a height of 2392 m, and is still active. On the south side of Mount Semeru towering to a height 3676 m.
 Customs Territory of Tengger  etnic  was divided into two regions namely Sabrang Kulon (Brang Kulon District represented by  Tosari  of  Pasuruan regency) and Sabrang Wetan (Brang Wetan represented by Ngadisari, Wanantara, Jetak District of Probolinggo regency Sukapura). Now the village - which is a community village Tengger etnic is as following:
 Ngadas, Wanatara, Jetak, and Ngadisari (District of Probolinggo regency Sukapura),  Wanakersa, Ledokombo, Pau (District of Probolinggo regency Resources).  Tosari village, Baledono, Sedaeng, Wonokitri, Ngadiwono, Kandangan, Mororejo (District of  Tosari Pasuruan regency), Keduwung (Pasuruan regency Puspo districts), Ngadirejo, Ledok Pring (District Pasuruan regency Speech) Desa Ngadas (Poncokusumo District  Malang), and Ranupani (District Malang Regency Lumajang).

 Tengger region loam soil conditions such as sand, but very fertile. Perennials that grow especially is Agathis laranthifolia, pine merkusii, Tectona, grandis leucaena, and Swietenia altingia excelsa, anthocepalus cadamba. In the foothills of the top covered with fir tree reaches a height above sea level 3000  the slopes of Mount Semeru. Its main plant is a tall timber, Elfin and spruce trees, while agricultural crops, especially potatoes, cabbage, carrots, corn, spring onion (plompong Tengger) etc..
 Pet's kind of some other cattle, sheep, pigs and chickens. Types of animals live in the wild in the forests are wild boar (sus scrofa) east deer (Cervus timorensis), wolves or (muncak Muntiacus), and was expanded range of types of leopard (Panthera pardus), there are species of birds, such as water birds.
Tengger regional climate is rainy and dry. The dry season occurs between the months of May to October. Sukapura rainfall in about 1800 mm, while the wet season occurs during November-April, with the percentage of 20-day / more rain fell in one month. Air temperature varies, depending height, between 3 º - 18 º Celsius. During the rainy season the average humidity is 80%. The temperature during the day was cool, and at night felt cold. During the dry season the night temperature feel colder than the rainy season. In winter usually shrouded in thick fog. In rural, fog began to thicken in the afternoon. In the area around the summit of Mount Bromo fog began to thicken in the morning before dawn.
 Tengger etnic  community embraced four of five religious religion recognized by the Indonesian government. Hinduism, Islam, Christianity and Buddhism.
 Tengger Livelihoods
 Residents in the vicinity of Bromo National Park approximately 128.181 of the soul with the following distribution: farmers penggarap 48 625 people (37.93%), farm worker 10 461 people (8.16%), employee and ARMI  1,595 people (1.24%), Traders 3009 people (2.38%), artisan / small industry 343 people (0.01%), and the other around 64 140 people (50.05%). Tengger society in general population residing in the hills clustered approach farmland. They live from cultivate crops on the farm, with rain-fed irrigation. At first they plant corn as a staple food, but now has changed. In the rainy season they grow vegetables such as potatoes, cabbage, onions, and carrots as commercial crops. At the end of the end of the rainy season they plant corn as a staple food recommendations.
 Since the reign of Majapahit Tengger story belongs slow population growth. Historical development Tenggers not clearly known, except in vague as findings Nancy (1985).
 Tenggers you already have an open attempt Services (Rentals Home Stay and Jeep Hard Top as transport to Bromo), it is in the doing since Bromo in the open as a tourist attraction.
Tengger  etnic  does not recognize community leadership dualism, although some custom Shamans name. But the formal rule and custom, Tengger tribe led by a village chief (Bigwigs) thus is Head Customs. While positioned as a leader Shaman Ritual / Traditional.
Bigwigs a selection process, done by means of direct election by the people, through a selection process Bigwigs.
Shamans are for selection, is done through several stages - stages (personal self concerning candidates Shamans)., Which in turn will be tested by the test Mulunen (speaking test spells that can not be broken or forgotten) the time at ceremonies held at Poten beauty, Mount Bromo.
 ARON rice (rice made with dar Tengger corn planting time approximately 8 months). Krangean material and sambal chilli shrimp paste made of materials such as usually, just the fruit added Krangean (only grows in Tengger) small shape like a pepper and fragrant smell such as basil, fresh green wananya (new quotes) and black (Klau already wilted or dried).

 The growing language community is Javanese Tengger . Tengger ancient Jawi language that is believed to be native dialect Majapahit people. The language used in the books of spells already using Java script Kawi. Tengger etnic  is one of the subsets of Javanese culture that developed a special variasai. This peculiarity can be seen from the language, which they use Tengger Javanese dialect, without any form of language as the language level in Java language in general.
 Education in Tengger community and has begun to look forward to building any schools, good middle or bottom level around the Tengger. Other knowledge sources is the use of certain spells by Tengger society.
 In Tengger life, already suffering from communication technology brought by tourists-both domestic and foreign tourists. Tengger unlike other tribes because Tenggers not have a castle, library, or traditional cultural wealth.
Tenggers majority embraced Hinduism, but Hinduism is different embraced Hinduism in Bali, that is Hindu Dharma. Growing Hindu community Hindu Tengger is Mahayana. In addition to Hinduism, the religion embraced   moslim, Protestant, Christian, etc.. Based on the teachings of Hinduism adopted, every year they do Kasodo ceremony. Kasodo addition, other ritual ceremonies  Karo, Kapat, Kapitu, Kawulo, Kasanga. Offerings and spells very viscous influence in the Tengger community. Tengger community believe that their spells are utilized is white magic spells black magic that nature is not detrimental.
Before there were many marriages Law Tengger children who marry in their youth, for example at the age of 10-14 years. However, in the present case has been considerably reduced and the pattern endogami her wedding. Marriage customs adopted by the Tengger etnic not significantly different from Javanese traditional wedding it's just acting as a ruler and guardian families are quack Pandita. Custom neolokal settled after marriage is, that husband and wife live in a new environment. To temporarily silence the newlyweds first wife dilingkungan relatives.

 Tengger community consisting of village clusters each group is led by elders. And the whole village is led by a custom head. Tengger community strongly believe and respect in comparison quack in their territory because of administrative office highly influential shamans in Tengger community life. Tenggers lift other people from outside the community Tengger as a freeman and not everything can be a freeman in Tengger community. Tengger Muslim communities usually live in villages rather live under while Hindu Tengger.
 Currently Tenggers generally live as farmers in the fields. Their principle is not want to sell the land (farms) they are in others. Range of agricultural products are potatoes, cabbage, carrots, tobacco, and corn. Maize is the staple food Tengger. Besides farming, there are some  Tenggerese  become tourist guides in Bromo. One of the methods used is to offer their own horse to be rented to tourists.
 Special dance choreographed in tengger   is sodoran Tengger  shown at the festival and Kasodo Karo. In terms of culture, society Tengger much influenced by the culture of mountain agriculture and courage, despite most of their culture similar to Java community in general, but there is taboo to play the wayang kulit / leather puppet.